Foreign substance

External contamination with a chemical or material that may or may not be irritating but usually results in diminished or loss of function. This may include glue traps, oil on the fur or feathers, non-water proofed feathers, etc.


Deficiency of blood supply to some part of the body due to physical constriction or obstruction of blood vessels.


An injury caused by high-energy radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays.


Damage to tissues caused by contact with dry heat (fire), moist heat (steam or liquid), chemicals, electricity, or lightning.


Pertaining to a wound or injury, usually caused by an external force that  may occur anywhere on the body.

Physical injury

An injury caused by i) trauma from an external force, ii) pressure or rubbing, iii) any kind of burn, or iv) exposure to a foreign substance.

Botulism toxicity

A toxemia caused by the ingestion of the toxin of Clostridium botulinum. Often known as “limberneck” in effected waterfowl.


The poisonous effects caused by bites or stings of insects/arthropods or the bites of snakes.

Algal bloom toxicity

Pertaining to toxins released from cyanobacteria that may cause sudden death due to neurotoxins or severe liver damage due to hepatotoxins.

Rodenticide toxicity

Pertaining to any pest control chemical destructive to rodents. These typically include anticoagulants (warfarin, brodifacoum, difethialone, etc.), metal phosphides (zinc phosphide), chemicals causing hypercalcemia (cholecalciferol) and other poisons such as “1080”, strychnine, and white phosphorus.